Telling stories through your commits

This is a short talk about how you can use your source control commit messages to keep track of the intent of your code changes and make it easier to keep changing your project in future.

๐Ÿ“„ Transcript

Slide 001
I am Joel Chippindale and I have been the CTO at FutureLearn for the last few years and I am here to talk to you about telling stories through your commits.
Slide 002
If we have a successful software development project then our key challenge, as lead developers, is to manage complexity because projects can get very complex very quickly even within quite small teams.
Slide 003
As lead developers we, and our teams, spend a lot of time thinking about this. We think about the naming of methods and functions and variables and…
Slide 004
we think about our code design.
Slide 005
We probably spend a lot of time refactoring code. Taking code that works and making it simpler to understand.
Slide 006
And probably most of your teams are spending a good proportion of their time writing automated tests and that allows your teams to have the confidence to keep changing the software but also helps to document what the code is supposed to do.
Slide 007
All these tools and techniques help communicate the intent of our software and if we want to keep changing it we need to understand this intent.
Slide 008
There is one tool that we under utilise in our communities for communicating our intent and that is our version control system. All the examples in this talk use git but the principles apply to whatever system you are using.
Slide 009
Our commit history has some very special properties which make it particularly useful for documenting intent.
Slide 010
It is kept forever.
Slide 011
It is always up to date and this almost certainly not true of most of the documentation you have, perhaps in a wiki or even in code comments.
Slide 012
And, this may come as a surprise to some of you, it is searchable. Git doesn’t make this obvious so here are some commands that you may find useful.
Slide 013
You can search all the contents of all your commit messages.
Slide 014
You can search all the contents of all the code changes in your commits.
Slide 015
And you can find out where each line of code was last changed…
Slide 016
…giving you output like this.
Slide 017
It is these properties that allow Mislav Marahoniฤ‡ to say that, “Every line of code is always documented”. If every line of code is documented how do we make sure that this documentation tells a useful story to us and our teams about that line of code?
Slide 018
I will share 3 principles with that will help you with this.
Slide 019
Firstly and most importantly make atomic commits. Make your commits about a single change to your code base.
Slide 020
To illustrate why this is important I am going to share a git horror story with you. This is from a project which I am responsible for. Bug fixes? Which ones? How many? We have no idea. And a Wordpress update. Those of you who are laughing are probably doing so because there are 175 thousand lines of code changes in this commit. Reverse engineering this commit to find out what happened is very hard.
Slide 021
Let us imagine an alternate history where this commit had been split into atomic commits.
Slide 022
Here we might have a Wordpress update commit containing the vast majority of those 175k lines of changes and then 8 separate commits each one about a single bug which is easy to understand.
Slide 023
When I talk about this, I am often asked how big an atomic commit should be? In our industry we generally make our commits too big so it is worth thinking about a minimum viable commit. What’s the smallest useful change that you can make to your codebase?
Slide 024
Another useful rule of thumb is to avoid needing ‘and’ in your commit messages. If you did ‘A’ and ‘B’ maybe they are two separate changes.
Slide 025
Second principle: write good commit messages.
Slide 026
That’s very easy for me to say so I will take you through a template to give you more of an idea of what I mean.
Slide 027
Short one line title because you view your commits in lists and a longer description if you need it.
Slide 028
An explanation of why the change is being made. If people want to know how they can change this in future then they need to know what the intention of this change was.
Slide 029
Lastly, when you make this commit, you know more about why you are making this change and how you are fixing or improving this thing than anyone else ever will and so it can be useful to outline some of the context and alternative approaches considered.
Slide 030
To make this more concrete, here is an example of a commit message from one of the other projects I am responsible for. You can see the one line title, you can see a link to our bug tracking system, you can see an explanation of the quirks of Outlook and why we are making this particular change and a link to a blog post which explains more about the problem. This is gold dust for people going back and trying to work out why the CSS in our project is in the particular state it is in.
Slide 031
Third principle: revise your development history before sharing. We all know that once commits are on master, or once they are deployed, you don’t want to change them out from underneath people. But, in your development branches, it can be much more useful if they tell a story about what you intended to do instead of a blow by blow account of all the missteps you took along the way.
Slide 032
There’s a tool for this, git rebase interactive…
Slide 033
…and this allows you to remove, reorder, edit, merge and split commits. Essentially with this tool your development branches are infinitely malleable.
Slide 034
To give you a quick example. Imagine I have added Foo and made a commit, removed Bar and made a commit and then I have spotted a typo in the first commit so I make a new commit to fix the typo. That’s just noise for other people. No one cares about the fact that I didn’t get the first commit right first time.
Slide 035
We can use git rebase interactive to merge the first and third commits and tell a simpler story about what we are trying to do.
Slide 036
So three principles. 1. Make atomic commits. 2. Write good commit messages and 3. Revise your development history before sharing
Slide 037
This is a quote from someone who joined our team recently which I hope will help persuade you of the benefits of taking this approach.
Slide 038
Perhaps you are sitting here, as lead developers, thinking this sounds like a really good idea. How am I going to take this back to my team on Monday? How am I going to persuade them to adopt these practices that seem like they have pay off months or even years down the line perhaps for other developers on the team?
Slide 039
Won’t it take a huge amount of discipline?
Slide 040
I think the key is that all these practices make things simpler for individual developers in your team right now.
Slide 041

Let’s go back over the principles.

Make atomic commits

This is about making sure that you are making one change at a time to your code. This makes it simpler to work on.

Write good commit messages

If you can write down what you are trying to do in the particular change that you are making then you are half way there already and it is a really valuable discipline for you and your teams to get into.

Revise your history before sharing

If your development branch tells a good story about what you did then it is easier for you to understand what you did and whether it solves the problem you had and also it is easier to share with others, perhaps in a pull request, to get feedback. All these practices making things easier now for your teams.

Slide 042
Thank you for your time.

๐Ÿ‘ Thanks

Thanks to my teams at FutureLearn and Econsultancy for helping develop and road test these practices on our projects.

๐Ÿ“Š Slides

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This may be the best guidance I've seen anywhere on writing a really good commit history. My ideal commit combines code changes, test changes, related documentation updates and some background info in the commit, plus a link to the issue tracker

Simon Willison

Fantastic, succinct source control presentation from @joelchippindale #leaddev


It's got to that time where I end up sharing @joelchippindale's excellent Telling stories talk with my co-workers again. Let's just cut to the chase and make this required viewing for everyone intending to write code with other people pls. thx.

Matthew Valentine-House

I really have taken @joelchippindaleโ€™s commit message recommendations โ€” โ€” to heart:

Paul Mucur

@joelchippindale since your talk at @lrug I've been learning lots more Git. Proper commits, using rebase -i, squashing and more. Thank you!


Absolutely loved this talk. It amazed me how much information he was able to cram in a relatively short talk.

Tim Schraepen

This is part of a series of talks and articles about the work and practices of my teams and I at FutureLearn.